1CE

COMMON ERA

cow

A Roman naturalist named Pliney the Elder recommends drinking fermented milk to treat intestinal problems.

1893

milk

Elie Metchnikoff, a Russian scientist, from the Pasteur Institute of Paris, studies lactic acid bacteria. He theorizes that lactic acid bacteria, or friendly bacteria, provide a type of protection from intestinal autointoxication.

1917

ecoli

Alfred Nissle, a German physician and scientist, uses Escherichia coli to treat intestinal diseases, such as Shigella and Salmonella, with great success.

1965

Probiotic

St. John’s University researchers Daniel Lilly and Rosalie Stillwell are the first to coin the term "probiotics" and define them as "a substance produced by one microorganism stimulating the growth of another microorganism."

2008

Human Microbiome Project

The Human Microbiome Project finds that Christensenella minuta is the most heritable species in the gut and that it can directly affect the weight of its host.

2012

Probiotics/prebiotics are the third most used natural products.

2015

In America, $36.6 billion was spent on probiotic products.